plot_prism plots a network diagram of from a sufficient and valid set of 3 essential probabilities (prev, and sens or its complement mirt, and spec or its complement fart) or existing frequency information freq and a population size of N individuals.

plot_prism(prev = num$prev, sens = num$sens, mirt = NA,
  spec = num$spec, fart = NA, N = num$N, by = "cddc",
  area = "no", scale = "p", round = TRUE, f_lbl = "num",
  f_lbl_sep = NA, f_lwd = 0, p_lbl = "mix", arr_c = NA,
  lbl_txt = txt, title_lbl = txt$scen_lbl, cex_lbl = 0.9,
  cex_p_lbl = NA, col_pal = pal, mar_notes = TRUE, ...)

Arguments

prev

The condition's prevalence prev (i.e., the probability of condition being TRUE).

sens

The decision's sensitivity sens (i.e., the conditional probability of a positive decision provided that the condition is TRUE). sens is optional when its complement mirt is provided.

mirt

The decision's miss rate mirt (i.e., the conditional probability of a negative decision provided that the condition is TRUE). mirt is optional when its complement sens is provided.

spec

The decision's specificity value spec (i.e., the conditional probability of a negative decision provided that the condition is FALSE). spec is optional when its complement fart is provided.

fart

The decision's false alarm rate fart (i.e., the conditional probability of a positive decision provided that the condition is FALSE). fart is optional when its complement spec is provided.

N

The number of individuals in the population. A suitable value of N is computed, if not provided. Note: N is not represented in the plot, but used for computing frequency information freq from current probabilities prob.

by

A character code specifying 1 or 2 perspectives that split the population into 2 subsets. Specifying 1 perspective plots a frequency tree (single tree) with 3 options:

  1. "cd": by condition only;

  2. "dc": by decision only;

  3. "ac": by accuracy only.

Specifying 2 perspectives plots a frequency prism (network, double tree) with 6 options:

  1. "cddc": by condition (cd) and by decision (dc) (default);

  2. "cdac": by condition (cd) and by accuracy (ac);

  3. "dccd": by decision (dc) and by condition (cd);

  4. "dcac": by decision (dc) and by accuracy (ac);

  5. "accd": by accuracy (ac) and by condition (cd);

  6. "acdc": by accuracy (ac) and by decision (dc).

area

A character code specifying the shapes of the frequency boxes, with 3 options:

  1. "no": rectangular frequency boxes, not scaled (default);

  2. "hr": frequency boxes are horizontal rectangles (scaled relative to N).

  3. "sq": frequency boxes are squares (scaled relative to N).

scale

Scale probabilities and corresponding area dimensions either by exact probability or by (rounded or non-rounded) frequency, with 2 options:

  1. "p": scale main area dimensions by exact probability (default);

  2. "f": re-compute probabilities from (rounded or non-rounded) frequencies and scale main area dimensions by their frequency.

Note: scale setting matters for the display of probability values and for area plots with small population sizes N when round = TRUE.

round

A Boolean option specifying whether computed frequencies are rounded to integers. Default: round = TRUE.

f_lbl

Type of label for showing frequency values in 4 main areas, with 6 options:

  1. "def": abbreviated names and frequency values;

  2. "abb": abbreviated frequency names only (as specified in code);

  3. "nam": names only (as specified in lbl_txt = txt);

  4. "num": numeric frequency values only (default);

  5. "namnum": names (as specified in lbl_txt = txt) and numeric values;

  6. "no": no frequency labels (same for f_lbl = NA or NULL).

f_lbl_sep

Label separator for main frequencies (used for f_lbl = "def" OR "namnum"). Use f_lbl_sep = ":\n" to add a line break between name and numeric value. Default: f_lbl_sep = NA (set to " = " or ":\n" based on f_lbl).

f_lwd

Line width of areas. Default: f_lwd = 0.

p_lbl

Type of label for showing 3 key probability links and values, with many options:

  1. "abb": show links and abbreviated probability names;

  2. "def": show links and abbreviated probability names and values;

  3. "min": show links and minimum (prominent) probability names;

  4. "mix": show links and prominent probability names and all values (default);

  5. "nam": show links and probability names (as specified in code);

  6. "num": show links and numeric probability values;

  7. "namnum": show links with names and numeric probability values;

  8. "no": show links with no labels (same for p_lbl = NA or NULL).

arr_c

Arrow code for symbols at ends of probability links (as a numeric value -3 <= arr_c <= +6), with the following options:

  • -1 to -3: points at one/other/both end/s;

  • 0: no symbols;

  • +1 to +3: V-arrow at one/other/both end/s;

  • +4 to +6: T-arrow at one/other/both end/s.

Default: arr_c = NA, but adjusted by area.

lbl_txt

Default label set for text elements. Default: lbl_txt = txt.

title_lbl

Text label for current plot title. Default: title_lbl = txt$scen_lbl.

cex_lbl

Scaling factor for text labels (frequencies and headers). Default: cex_lbl = .90.

cex_p_lbl

Scaling factor for text labels (probabilities). Default: cex_p_lbl = cex_lbl - .05.

col_pal

Color palette. Default: col_pal = pal.

mar_notes

Boolean option for showing margin notes. Default: mar_notes = TRUE.

...

Other (graphical) parameters.

Value

Nothing (NULL).

Details

plot_prism generalizes and replaces plot_fnet by removing the dependency on the R package diagram and providing many additional options.

See also

plot_fnet for older (obsolete) version; plot_area for plotting mosaic plot (scaling area dimensions); plot_bar for plotting frequencies as vertical bars; plot_tab for plotting table (without scaling area dimensions); pal contains current color settings; txt contains current text settings.

Other visualization functions: plot.riskyr, plot_area, plot_bar, plot_curve, plot_fnet, plot_icons, plot_mosaic, plot_plane, plot_tab, plot_tree

Examples

## Basics: # (1) Using global prob and freq values: plot_prism() # default prism plot,
# same as: # plot_prism(by = "cddc", area = "no", scale = "p", # f_lbl = "num", f_lwd = 0, cex_lbl = .90, # p_lbl = "mix", arr_c = -2, cex_p_lbl = NA) # (2) Providing values: plot_prism(N = 10, prev = 1/2, sens = 4/5, spec = 3/5)
plot_prism(N = 10, prev = 1/3, sens = 3/5, spec = 4/5, area = "hr")
plot_prism(N = 10, prev = 1/4, sens = 3/5, spec = 2/5, area = "sq", mar_notes = TRUE)
## Custom color and text settings: plot_prism(col_pal = pal_bw, f_lwd = .5, lwd = .5, lty = 2, # custom fbox color, prob links, font = 3, cex_p_lbl = .75) # and text labels
my_txt <- init_txt(cond_lbl = "The Truth", cond_true_lbl = "so true", cond_false_lbl = "so false", hi_lbl = "TP", mi_lbl = "FN", fa_lbl = "FP", cr_lbl = "TN") my_col <- init_pal(N_col = rgb(0, 169, 224, max = 255), # seeblau hi_col = "gold", mi_col = "firebrick1", fa_col = "firebrick2", cr_col = "orange") plot_prism(f_lbl = "nam", lbl_txt = my_txt, col_pal = my_col, f_lwd = .5)
## Local values and custom color/txt settings: plot_prism(N = 7, prev = 1/2, sens = 3/5, spec = 4/5, round = FALSE, by = "cdac", lbl_txt = txt_org, f_lbl = "namnum", f_lbl_sep = ":\n", f_lwd = 1, col_pal = pal_rgb) # custom colors
plot_prism(N = 5, prev = 1/2, sens = .8, spec = .5, scale = "p", # note scale! by = "cddc", area = "hr", col_pal = pal_bw, f_lwd = 1) # custom colors
plot_prism(N = 3, prev = .50, sens = .50, spec = .50, scale = "p", # note scale! area = "sq", lbl_txt = txt_org, f_lbl = "namnum", f_lbl_sep = ":\n", # custom text col_pal = pal_kn, f_lwd = .5) # custom colors
## Plot versions: # (A) tree/single tree (nchar(by) == 2): # 3 versions: plot_prism(by = "cd", f_lbl = "def", col_pal = pal_mod) # by condition (freq boxes: hi mi fa cr)
plot_prism(by = "dc", f_lbl = "def", col_pal = pal_mod) # by decision (freq boxes: hi fa mi cr)
plot_prism(by = "ac", f_lbl = "def", col_pal = pal_mod) # by decision (freq boxes: hi cr mi fa)
# (B) prism/double tree (nchar(by) == 4): # 6 (3 x 2) versions (+ 3 redundant ones): plot_prism(by = "cddc") # v01 (default)
plot_prism(by = "cdac") # v02
plot_prism(by = "cdcd") # (+) Message
#> Specified 2 identical perspectives.
plot_prism(by = "dccd") # v03
plot_prism(by = "dcac") # v04
plot_prism(by = "dcdc") # (+) Message
#> Specified 2 identical perspectives.
plot_prism(by = "accd") # v05
plot_prism(by = "acdc") # v06
plot_prism(by = "acac") # (+) Message
#> Specified 2 identical perspectives.
## Other options: # area: plot_prism(area = "no") # rectangular boxes (default): (same if area = NA/NULL)
plot_prism(area = "hr") # horizontal rectangles (widths on each level sum to N)
plot_prism(area = "sq") # squares (areas on each level sum to N)
# scale (matters for scaled areas and small N): plot_prism(N = 5, prev = .3, sens = .8, spec = .6, area = "hr", scale = "p") # widths scaled by prob
plot_prism(N = 5, prev = .3, sens = .8, spec = .6, area = "hr", scale = "f") # widths scaled by (rounded or non-rounded) freq
plot_prism(N = 4, prev = .2, sens = .7, spec = .8, area = "sq", scale = "p") # areas scaled by prob
plot_prism(N = 4, prev = .2, sens = .7, spec = .8, area = "sq", scale = "f") # areas scaled by (rounded or non-rounded) freq
## Frequency boxes: # f_lbl: plot_prism(f_lbl = "abb") # abbreviated freq names (variable names)
plot_prism(f_lbl = "nam") # only freq names
plot_prism(f_lbl = "num") # only numeric freq values (default)
plot_prism(f_lbl = "namnum") # names and numeric freq values
plot_prism(f_lbl = "namnum", cex_lbl = .75) # smaller freq labels
plot_prism(f_lbl = NA) # no freq labels
plot_prism(f_lbl = "def") # informative default: short name and numeric value (abb = num)
# f_lwd: plot_prism(f_lwd = 0) # no lines (default), set to tiny_lwd = .001, lty = 0 (same if NA/NULL)
plot_prism(f_lwd = 1) # basic lines
plot_prism(f_lwd = 3) # thicker lines
plot_prism(f_lwd = .5) # thinner lines
## Probability links: # p_lbl: plot_prism(p_lbl = "mix") # abbreviated names with numeric values (abb = num)
plot_prism(p_lbl = NA) # no prob labels (NA/NULL/"none")
plot_prism(p_lbl = "nam") # only prob names
plot_prism(p_lbl = "num") # only numeric prob values
plot_prism(p_lbl = "namnum") # names and numeric prob values
plot_prism(p_lbl = "namnum", cex_p_lbl = .70) # smaller prob labels
plot_prism(by = "cddc", p_lbl = "min") # minimal labels
plot_prism(by = "cdac", p_lbl = "min")
plot_prism(by = "cddc", p_lbl = "mix") # mix abbreviated names and numeric values
plot_prism(by = "cdac", p_lbl = "mix")
plot_prism(by = "cddc", p_lbl = "abb") # abbreviated names
plot_prism(by = "cdac", p_lbl = "abb")
plot_prism(p_lbl = "any") # short name and value (abb = num)
# arr_c: plot_prism(arr_c = 0) # acc_c = 0: no arrows
plot_prism(arr_c = -3) # arr_c = -1 to -3: points at both ends
plot_prism(arr_c = -2) # point at far end
plot_prism(arr_c = +2) # crr_c = 1-3: V-shape arrows at far end
plot_prism(arr_c = +3) # V-shape arrows at both ends
plot_prism(arr_c = +6) # arr_c = 4-6: T-shape arrows
## Plain plot versions: plot_prism(area = "no", f_lbl = "def", p_lbl = "num", col_pal = pal_mod, f_lwd = 1, title_lbl = "", mar_notes = FALSE) # remove titles and margin notes
plot_prism(area = "no", f_lbl = "nam", p_lbl = "min", col_pal = pal_rgb)
plot_prism(area = "no", f_lbl = "abb", p_lbl = "abb", col_pal = pal_bw)
plot_prism(area = "no", f_lbl = "num", p_lbl = "num", col_pal = pal_kn)
plot_prism(area = "hr", f_lbl = "num", f_lwd = .5, p_lbl = NA, arr_c = 0, col_pal = pal_mod, lwd = .5)
plot_prism(area = "hr", f_lbl = "nam", f_lwd = .5, p_lbl = NA, col_pal = pal_bw)
plot_prism(area = "hr", f_lbl = "nam", f_lwd = .5, p_lbl = "num")
plot_prism(area = "sq", f_lbl = "nam", p_lbl = NA, col_pal = pal_rgb)
plot_prism(area = "sq", f_lbl = "num", p_lbl = NA, f_lwd = 1, col_pal = pal_bw, lwd = .5)
plot_prism(area = "sq", f_lbl = "def", f_lbl_sep = ":\n", p_lbl = NA, f_lwd = 1, col_pal = pal_kn)
## Suggested combinations: plot_prism(f_lbl = "nam", p_lbl = "mix", col_pal = pal_mod)
plot_prism(f_lbl = "namnum", p_lbl = "mix", cex_lbl = .80, cex_p_lbl = .75)
plot_prism(area = "hr", f_lbl = "nam", p_lbl = "num", col_pal = pal_mod)
plot_prism(area = "hr", f_lbl = "abb", p_lbl = "abb", f_lwd = 1, col_pal = pal_bw)
plot_prism(area = "hr", f_lbl = "num", p_lbl = "mix", f_lwd = 1, cex_p_lbl = .75)
plot_prism(area = "sq", f_lbl = "nam", p_lbl = "abb", lbl_txt = txt_TF)
plot_prism(area = "sq", f_lbl = "num", p_lbl = "num", f_lwd = 1, col_pal = pal_rgb)
plot_prism(area = "sq", f_lbl = "namnum", p_lbl = "mix", f_lwd = .5, col_pal = pal_kn)